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 Chapter 1         Definition of Telecommunications

  
    The Thai telecommunication encyclopedia (2009 edition) presents “telecommunications” as “communication that eliminates distance    between persons, equipments, or any automatic system. It is used with any kind of electro-mechanic, light, electromagnetic wave, or  
   the specific quantum properties, in order to deliver understanding signs, signal, text, sound, picture or multimedia to the receiver.”
  
 This is derived from those of the world’s telecommunication development. Starting from sending smoke, fire, or sound signals, it was
  
 then replaced by mechanical telegraph, copper wires, electromagnetic waves, optical fiber, and so on. Telecommunication significantly
  
 reduces time of those messages transportation over the distances covering person to person communication through the network
  
 level of regional, national, and international connections.
Chapter 2         History of World Telecommunications: Telegraphy and Telephony

      From a social and culture perspective, the rapid and dependable communications was indispensable to human life. Systematically,
   beginning of communications with telegraph, the world first commercial service was started in England in 1839 and in the United State
   in 1844. Telegraph service was spanned much in Europe, North America, and Middle East. Its networks connected every continent
   except the Antarctica covering every major body of water by submarine cable. Consequently, with the attempt of combining human
   voice into that previous communication system, the telephony was then born. These both basic telecommunication systems were the
   world early important discoveries and fundamental technologies which sparked lots of latter significant telecommunication systems.
Chapter 3         History of World Telecommunications: Radio and Wireless Communications

      Evidently, the world’s early discoveries of major communications systems were the telegraphy and telephony. Another advance in
   communications engineering was followed by the radio communications. It starting was counted on the elegant mathematical
   equation of James Clerk Maxwell which was released during the 1860s. Until 1888, the demonstration of generation and detection
   to the electromagnetic radiation by using Maxwell’s equation was then set up by a German physicist, Heinrich Hertz. Subsequently,
   an Italian researcher named Guglielmo Marconi introduced the wireless signaling apparatus in 1896. Later, there was the first
   wireless link across the Atlantic Ocean consequently in 1901, and then led to the first major application of wireless telegraphy.
   Since then, the following developments were done significantly and came up with other newer systems. There are radio and
   television broadcasting, radar, microwave, and radio frequency engineering. Obviously, there are the world telecommunication
   heritages in radio and wireless communication areas.
Chapter 4         History of World Telecommunications:Optical and Satellite Communications

      History of satellite began October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the world’s first spacecraft. The space race
   was on, and in February of 1957, the United States launched Explorer 1. On August 12, 1960, the United States launched Echo 1, a    
   passive reflector satellite with no amplification possibilities. Echo 1 could only reflect the radiation back to earth. In 1966, Charles K.
   Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) were the first to promote the idea that
   the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 dB per kilometer, allowing fibers to be a practical medium for
   communication. Both technologies play important roles to make existence of global network, high-speed services, and particularly for
   multimedia-content communications.
Chapter 5         History of World Telecommunications: Internet

      Generally, the internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks, joining many government, university, and private
   computers together. Prior to that widespread internetworking that led to the foundation of the internet, several research programs
   began to create principles of networking between separated physical networks, including the development of packet switching
   technique. Project participants include Donald Davies (NPL), Paul Baran (RAND Corporation), and Leonard Kleinrock’s MIT and UCLA
   research programs. Consequently, it resulted to the development of several packet switched networking solutions in the late 1960s
   and 1970s, including the ARPANET. Later, the application of that packet switching guided to develop a protocol for inter-networking,
   where multiple different networks could be joined together into a super-framework of networks. Next by defining a common network
   system, the internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was then released by Vinton Cerf, Jon Postel, and Danny Cohen in 1978. This spread of
   the inter-network resulting to form the idea of a global inter-network that then be called internet.
Chapter 6         History of Thai Traditional Communication Systems

      Technically, telecommunication system is defined in this Thai telecommunication encyclopedia (2009 edition) as “communication
   that eliminates distance between persons, equipments, or any automatic system. It is used with any kind of electro-mechanic, light,    
   electromagnetic wave, or the specific quantum properties, in order to deliver understanding signs, signal, text, sound, picture or
   multimedia to the receiver”. Systematically, this is based on cleared procedure of implementation and utilization. Therefore, Thai    
   telecommunication era is then established when that the first system was adopted into Thailand. Evidently, the initial communication
   was with the telegraphy which started in the period under the reign of the King Rama V in 1875. Prior to the foundation of Thai
   telecommunication, where the earlier history was based on investigated annals, memo, and other related documents, communication
   was generally done though contemporary transportations. Information was in either form of, for instance, royal letter/ mandate/
   document/ and etc could be delivered via human or other couriers. Not only with those methods, nonsystematic transmission of
   any kind of signaling via flag/ sound/ cannon/ light or smoke also could be done for the short distance communications with their
   specific purposes. Those traditional communications were used randomly in the period before opening to modern
   Thai telecommunication era.
Chapter 7         Thai Telegraph and Teleprinter

      Generally, the telegraph was started in Thailand in 1875. Its accomplishment was done with the first implemented link between    
   Bangkok and Sumutprakan in 1883 during the reign of the King Rama V. At the same year, the post and telegraph department then
   was established. Basically, Morse code was used in order to modulate information through telegraph signal. Later, Thai Morse code
   was founded and deployed on November 1,1912 by the post and telegraph department. Continuously, newer and higher efficient
   models of telegraph were adopted that moved from the old fashion to be a sound telegraph model. Next, English  version of the    
   teleprinter was applied with the previous telegraph in order to improve the communication quality. Until 1953, Thai version of
   teleprinter then was invented through the Bilingual of English and Thai model in the year later. Finally, on April 30, 2008
   or 133 years from the first day of telegraph or 125 years after the official opening, telegraph in Thailand is terminated.

Chapter 8         ประวัติการสื่อสารโทรคมนาคมไทย : องค์การโทรศัพท์แห่งประเทศไทยกับกิจการโทรคมนาคม

      An important history of Thailand’s telecommunication development is that the service milestones of the Telephone Organization of
   Thailand or later TOT Public Company Limited. Since telephone services started in Thailand by the year 1881 under the reign of the
   King Rama V, it had been developed continuously from the basic manual operation of the magneto system to the central battery
   system. Subsequently, this kind of communication service was moved to automatic style of the Step-by-Step system through those
   Cross-Bar systems, and then to modern computerized system of the Stored Program Control (SPC). All stories regarding those
   telephonies represent directly to how telecommunications in Thailand grew up for a century dominantly under TOT service umbrella.
   Later with the rapid change in Thailand’s telecommunication policy and with the fast growing of related technologies, Voice over IP
   (VoIP), and high speed data communication are not solely served by TOT as that of the basic telephone service. But those are either
   in joint service or operated by other firms.
Chapter 9         ประวัติศาสตร์การสื่อสารโทรคมนาคมไทย : ยุคเครือข่ายอินเทอร์เน็ต

      The internet is the largest computer network with the highest number of users. The internet includes two main parts. The first part
  is over one billion computers linked together. The second part is the contents in the computers which from any computer in the
  network, it is possible to access any and all of the contents. For understanding to the internet in Thailand, a brief history of the
  Internet, Thailand chapter of the internet society, registration of domain names and IP addresses, Autonomous System Numbers (ASN),
  internet service providers (ISP), internet applications, and computer and internet milestones in Thailand, are considered.
Chapter 10         Joint Principle of Telecommunication Technologies with Mass Communications

      Basically, principle of telecommunication technologies and mass communication area can be considered jointly, although their
   developments are constructed on different aspects such as the first is mainly on discovered technologies and the latter is on wider
   view of laws and regulation events or technology itself. Those developments of telecommunication base on the systematical process
   of science. Meanwhile, social culture and media are for those of communication art. Therefore, their definitions and history
   milestones are usually known to the public on separated view. Implicitly, there are joint indicators of both areas in order to having
   their convergences or joint development. Those are their principle of system & process (telecommunications) and utilization or
   requirement (mass communication), error correction, and accuracy.
Chapter 11         Basic Telecommunication Law

      Telecommunication operation could be defined as providing a communication services with data, image, sound, or signals. Such
   operation may include public telephone services, mobile phone services or Internet services, etc. The Office of National    
   Telecommunication Commission (NTC), an independent regulator established under the Law on Organization for Spectrum Allocation
   and Radio and Television Broadcast and Telecommunication Operation, is responsible for issuing a license for telecom operator,
   specifying the type of telecom services and licenses, as well as allocating spectrum for the provision of telecommunication services.
   The responsibility of the NTC is mandated by the Telecommunication Operation Act of 2001. The Act contains five sections: licenses;
   interconnection charge; fees and service charges; competition and universal service obligation.

Chapter 12         Electromagnetic Compatibility on Telecommunications

      The related principle, definition, meaning, and elements are necessary topics to be understood of electromagnetic compatibility
   (EMC) with communication system. Therefore, the sample of how the circuit and power electronics create the electromagnetic
   interference is typically considered. In addition, international and Thai electromagnetic compatibility standard, including the most   
   important part, the solution to the electromagnetic compatibility problem for communication, are realized and shown in this chapter.
Chapter 13         Principle of Telecommunication Related Tests

      The related test of telecommunication equipments is to obtain the confidence of product for consumers. It is also to test of   
  compatible devices and others equipments with related standards. Form overall aspect, telecommunication test could also support
  indirectly to the industry for improving its product quality and service. Those are electromagnetic compatibility, performance test, and
  safety test.
Chapter 14         Principle of Telecommunications Roadmapping

      Technology roadmapping is a technique which many organizations selected to support short-, mid-, or long-term planning and
  strategies. Technology roadmapping is also used for connecting to resource allocation and business management. The roadmap may
  be shown in many graphical formats. T-plan is a generic format composed of at least 3 key layers (1) technology, (2) product/service,
  and (3) market/business, along with time dimension explicitly. Technology roadmap is a systematic technique which ensures that an
  organization will move in the right direction to its future goal. An effective technology roadmap needs to be kept alive and rolling as
  usual in order to maintain up-to-date information contained in the roadmap. Besides getting a technology roadmap, the roadmapping
  process provides an opportunity to communicate and share information among stakeholders.
Chapter 15         Telecommunication Economics

      Telecommunications services have developed in a monopoly environment. As competition is introduced into telecommunications   
  markets, there are concerns about the continuing exercise of market power by the market dominance or the incumbent operator. An
  effective competition regulation is required to ensure competitive markets. Telecommunication economics is a tool that can be used to
  foster competitive markets and also to protect consumer rights, especially on six key issues; competition regulation, price regulation,
  spectrum allocation, interconnection, universal services and consumer protection.
Chapter 16         Value Chain of Telecommunications Industry

      Thai telecommunications industry has been undergoing, both in technology and industry regulation aspect. Therefore, the value
   chain of the telecommunications industry is changed accordingly. Furthermore, the internet technology becomes a critical part and
   influences the structure of telecommunications value chain. The value chain of Thai telecommunications industry can be separated
   into six levels: equipment-makers layer, network layer, Internet layer, middleware layer, applications and contents layer, and
   customers layer. It plays an important role in order to having a good related policy and even business plan.
Chapter 17         Bibliometrics Study of Thai Communication Engineering and Related Areas-Research Publications

      Basically, bibliometrics study is that the method to measure the research publication. It can show the portrait covering status of the
  interested topics/disciplines/journals/institutions/researchers/or nations of those publications. Focusing on ECTI (electrical
  engineering/electronics/computer/ telecommunications and information technology) discipline, results can be seen as one of the R&D
  indicator comparing to those of the nearby countries. Generally, data/text mining tool is used to analyze the dataset from the well-  
  known ISI: Web of Science database. The samples of the top instance of Thai affiliations, author, and technical subject areas, can be
  used for that purpose. Moreover, samples of year ranking, top published journal, and correlation map of Thai affiliation cross keywords,
  are those related parameters for the bibliometrics study.
Chapter 18         Revolution of Radio & Mobile Telephone and Related Standards

      The evolution of radio telephone can be described by the related balancing areas among technologies, standard organizations, and
  ability of suppliers to appropriately response the customer requirements. General perspective of radio telephone evolution from the past
  including of related historical telecommunication standards and organizations, are important. They imply to these balancing of the   
  evolution.
Chapter 19         Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology Association: ECTI

      In order to promote professional carrier in electrical engineering, electronics, computer, telecommunications and information
  technology (ECTI), ECTI association of Thailand was then established on July 26, 2002. Its activity is similar to those of IEEE (US),
  IEE or later IET (UK), IEICE (Japan), or IEEK (South Korea). The foundation of ECTI association also reflects the centrality
  of these technical areas in Thailand. Since 2002, there have been lots of academic activities serving to students researchers and
  faculties. Those are technical conference, seminars, and publications of transactions, magazines, and books. Technically,
  telecommunication is one of the important areas of ECTI association where Thai telecommunication encyclopedia is highlighted as a
  large knowledge portal project that free to access for Thai community.
Chapter 20         The IEEE Communications Society

      The IEEE Communications Society (IEEE ComSoc) is one of the entities within the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
   (IEEE) that is mainly focused on communications technology. ComSoc was established in 1952 (though the current name was adopted
   in 1972) with the mission to promote the advancement technology and applications in communications and related fields. Activities
   organized by the society include publishing transactions, books, magazines, and also hosting/co-hosting conferences to create
   opportunity for members and the technical community to exchange information and research ideas. The IEEE ComSoc Thailand
   chapter was established in 1994. The mission of the chapter is to promote and support R&D and human resource development in
   communications technology in Thailand. ComSoc Thailand has also conducted several activities together with other IEEE chapters
   internationally.
Chapter 21         Electromagnetic Spectrum and Radio Frequency Communications

      In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist and mathematician discovered that an “electromagnetic wave” was possible, a   
  rapid interplay of electric and magnetic field spreading with the velocity of light at about 3x108 m/s. For communication purpose where
  the “radio frequency” is used, it bases on a form of that electromagnetic radiation with long wavelengths and low frequencies. The
  radio frequency section of electromagnetic spectrum covers on a fairly wide band. It includes waves with frequencies ranging from
  about 10 kilohertz to about 60,000 megahertz corresponding to wavelengths between about 30,000 m and 0.5 cm. This range of   
  frequency is adopted for wide applications of wireless communication, broadcasting systems, satellite communications, etc. Next,
  the mode of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere and in free space could be subdivided into main categories as
  ground wave propagation, sky wave propagation, or line of sight (LOS) propagation for instance. Each mode would be selected
  properly for the communication purposes by considering the obtained distance or quality of signal, and it depends on the atmospheric
  factors as well.
 Chapter 22    

      Basic Radio Resource Management

      Radio or wireless communications is the fastest developing technologies. Advancement includes cutting-edge technologies,
  customer-centric services and versatile equipments. Nonetheless, there are many constraints, mainly from the spectral bandwidth,
  that limit the system capacity. Major consideration focused on the channels assignment every time we considered the capacity
  enhancement. Many studies have shown that there are more than just the channel allocation schemes. Radio resource management
  plays a key role for efficient utilization of resources to assure the quality of service and to maintain high level of system capacity. RRM   
  includes, but not limited to, base station assignment, handover, admission control, power control, load control and scheduling
  algorithms.

Chapter 23         Morse Codes

      Morse code was invented by Samuel Finley Breese Morse in 1837 in order to represent the messages for long distance
  communications especially for the telegraph by using patterns of short (dots) and long (dashes) signal. Morse code became the
  international standard and was adopted by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) called the International Morse code. In
  Thailand, morse telegraph was brought in to service for long distance communication since the period of the King Rama V. However,
  the original Morse code was based on English alphabet which was not quite suitable for sending Thai message. Finally, Thai Morse
  code was then founded on November 1st of 1912.
 Chapter 24         Principle of Modulation for Communications

      Modulation is a technique for transmitting messages over a specific signal called carrier wave. A signal waveform of the message
  called the modulating or baseband signal is encoded into one or more of the characteristics of the carrier signal to produce a
  modulated signal, whose spectrum are matched to the characteristics of a medium over which it is to be transmitted. The process of
  modulation guarantees that the modulated signal has a recognizable pattern of variations in the characteristics, which the original
  baseband signal can be recovered from the modulated signal detected at the receiver by the process called demodulation. Generally,
  its advantages are making of bandwidth utilization and increasing performance of the communication systems.
 Chapter 25         Error Control Coding for Communication Systems

      Error control coding is a technique to reduce error during data transmission of digital communications and data storage devices.
  It is widely used to improve communication system performance, such as in mobile communications, satellite communications, and
  digital video broadcasting systems. In addition, this technique is also used for the same purpose in data storage systems. Basically,
  the information bit is encoded to be the code word in order to retrieving detection and correction capability. This codeword is
  transmitted through communication systems or stored in the devices as its purpose. It will then be recovered to be the original form by
  decoding with related method. The decoder adapts the detecting and correcting capability of the coding scheme to reduce some of
  error. Using error control coding improves reliability to the information bits and reduces the consumption of transmitted power. There
  are many types of error control coding scheme, for instance, Hamming code, BCH code, Reed-Solomon (RS) code, convolution code,
  Trellis-Coded Modulation (TCM), turbo codes, and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) code.
 Chapter 26         Fundamental of Spread Spectrum for Communications

      Originally, spread spectrum technology to provide vital anti-jamming and low probability of interception, was invented for military
  applications in wireless communications. Other significant advantages are efficient bandwidth utilization including of high capacity, and
  immune to signal distortion from the multipath propagation or the inter-symbol interference. Typically, there are two spread spectrum
  methodologies which are frequency hopping and direct sequence. The first method is that to transmit signals over normal amount of
  bandwidth at a time, the carrier frequency is not constant but changes periodically by hoping to another frequency in a set of available
  frequency spectrum. Next, another is that a data sequence is encoded by spreading code, which is identical for each user at a higher
  rate than the rate of the data. Therefore, the transmitted data are spread across the wideband spectrum. In order to reduce detection
  error in wireless communications where spread spectrum is applied, RAKE receiver is usually adopted. In addition,in the cellular mobile
  system with that spread spectrum technique, there is a power control function used to mitigate interference from other users and to
  have a longer battery lifetime.
 Chapter 27         Principle of Code Division Multiple Access: CDMA

      Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a form of modulation technique for multiple access to a physical medium such as a radio   
  channel. This technique is based on spread spectrum method by using spreading code for each user. It results in different users use
  the spectrum frequency at the same time. CDMA is a form of spread spectrum signaling since the spreading signal has a much higher
  bandwidth than the data being communicated. CDMA has been developed to be standards such as CDMA2000 and WCDMA for using in
  the third generation mobile communication system.
  Chapter 28         Basic Synchronization for Telecommunications

      Synchronization is one of those essential techniques embedding in digital communications. In order to establishing a communication
  linkage between transmitter and receiver, synchronization must accomplish its scheme acknowledging both sides of “start and stop” of
  the data sequence. Basically, data processing of both ends bases on parallel style and then transmitted through each other in a single
  communication channel by being converted into the serial format. Those sequences must be referred on the same based-clock signal.
  Principle of synchronization also includes line coding, clock extraction, and time recovery.
 Chapter 29         Principle of Traffi c Engineering in Circuit-Switching and the Numbering System

      Telecommunication network is, in general, operated on the limited number of channels or trunk circuits. Thus, in order to achieve
  high level of system efficiency, the crucial considerations include acceptable grade of service, numbering plan and the design to
  accommodate the traffic requirements as well as the management of telecommunication traffic or teletraffic.
 Chapter 30         Synchronous Digital Hierarchy: SDH

      Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is an international standard defined by the International Telecommunication Union –
  Transmission (ITU-T). The synchronous transport method embodied in these standards not only fulfills all the requirements of
  a point-to-point transmission system, they also satisfy all the requirements of basic telecommunication network – switching,
  transmission and network control. Thus, SDH can be applied, in a seamless and unified manner, in all application sectors – the local
  loop, the inter-exchange network and the long-haul link. With single mode fibers as the transmission medium, the bandwidth frequency
  is to be exploited by going in for wide-band and highspeed transport in the digital domain. In SDH, multiplexing from a lower to higher
  signal hierarchy or demultiplexing from a higher to lower hierarchy can be done without going through each of the intermediate steps
  as that in Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH). The expectations of the users as well as the operators owing to the rapid advances in
  optical transmission, integrated electronics and software technologies expose the limitations of the existing PDH. Therefore, the need to
  transport a large volume of data over long distance to cater to a multitude service can be fulfilled with SDH system. With SDH, the
  telecommunication network can achieve better quality of service (QoS), more services and flexibility in multiplexing and demultiplexing
  process.
 Chapter 31          Quality of Service (QoS) in Telecommunication Networks

      Many networks handling various types of services are demanded to provide their users guarantees on qualities of delivered services.
  Elements of those qualities include reliability, delay, and so on complying to their stated commitment to their users at reasonable
  prices. A typical portion of network traffic is multimedia that consists of audio and visual data. To serve such requirement, Quality of
  Service (QoS) mechanisms have been required to address and handle multimedia data packets during transmission and regarded as
  one of the most important features in communication networks. A general model and approaches to the existing standards and network
  technologies are important. Moreover, the fundamental concept and framework of QoS for OSI, QoS in ATM networks and QoS for IP
  networks are necessary to understand this QoS.
Chapter 32          Local Area Networks: LANs

      Basically, networking is a means of connecting computers and other electronic devices together in order to share information and
  also resources, and to communicate with each other. Local area networking or LAN is one type of that network covers a small
  geographical area, typically a building or an office. Principally, there are two kinds of LAN: wired LANs and wireless LANs. The most
  common wired LAN forms include Ethernet LAN and Token Ring. Meanwhile, Ethernet LAN consists of a central device called switch
  with a number of other devices connected to the switch. In Token Ring, there is no such central node. Thus, the devices are arranged
  in the
form of a ring.
Chapter 33          Asynchronous Transfer Mode: ATM

      Asynchronous Transfer Mode, abbreviated ATM, provides a high-speed low-delay multiplexing and switching network to support
  any type of traffics such as voice, data and video applications. ATM segments and multiplexes user traffics into small and fixed-length
  units called cells. The cell is 53 octets, with 5 octets is reserved for the cell header. Each cell is identified by virtual circuit identifiers
  which contained in the cell header. An ATM network uses these identifiers to relay the traffic through high-speed switches from the
  sending customer premises equipment (CPE) to the receiving CPE. ATM provides no error detection operations on the user payload
  inside the cell. It provides no retransmission services and a few of operations are performed on the small header. These cells with
  minimal services are performed to implement and support multi-megabit transfer rates. The ITU-T, ANSI and the ATM Forum have
  selected ATM to be a part of the broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) specification to provide for the multiplexing and switching operations. ATM
  resides on top of the physical layer of a conventional layered protocol. The physical layer could be implemented with SONET/SDH, DS3,
  FDDI, CEPT4 and others. However, large public networks are usually uses SONET/SDH for physical layer.
Chapter 34          Internet Protocol Version 6

      Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) was developed and standardized to solve the address space problem in the current Internet
  Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The IPv6 address is 128 bits long. Supporting many as 2128 IP addresses. In addition, IPv6 improves
  efficiency of network operation over IPv4. The migration from IPv4 networks to IPv6 networks can be done in three manners: dual
  stacks, IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnel, or IP protocol translation.
Chapter 35          Next Generation Network: NGN

      Telex or telegraphy exchange was the most common text transmission service in the past before transferring to the newer
  telecommunication systems. It is refered to that the service of providing a documentary record. Also, it was developed as the latter
  generation of the teleprinter which could be used as the unattended machine (semi or automatic) for serving most to press and travel
  agencies, airlines, or embassies in general. Telex was adopted into service in Thailand at the same time as the US’s service
  enhancement of the teleprinter to telex in 1962. At the end of August 1982, there was a record of 3,016 telex customers in Thailand,
  meanwhile about 1.7 million subscribers all around the world were reported in 1988. Until the application of facsimile and other
  higher efficiented communication technologies, the number of telex users had been decreased rapidly worldwide and then its services
  in the United States were terminated in 1992.
Chapter 36          Principle of Transmission Lines for Communications

      Significantly, transmission lines play an important role in a wide range of communications. They are used for carrying information
  from one place to others. There are various types of transmission lines such as two-wire open air, two-wire ribbon, twisted pair,
  coaxial cable, and optical fiber types. Those are applied for various purposes of communications. Generally, application criterion based
  on characteristics of the transmission lines are considered on their application bandwidth, transmission distance, installation budget,
  and physical environment. For example, an ADSL technology uses twisted pair transmission line, LAN technology bases on coaxial cable,
  and longdistance communication such as SONET technology relies on the optical fiber.
Chapter 37          Principle of Telephony and Its Network

      Generally, the telephone or basic voice service system is the most popular type of communications. In general, a basic structure of
  telecommunication network consists of the telephone exchange, signaling and transmission system, controller and terminal equipments.
  Signal transmission over the public telephone network is based on that sending voice signal between two or more of remote parties.
  That connection starts from a caller connecting to the public telephone network through the local switching or exchange in order to link
  with another user. There are many types of those connections, such as star topology and mesh topology. Utilization of those topology
  depends on various factors such as the size of network or the number of end-user. Finally, a hierarchy network which consists of the
  international telephone switching center, a tertiary center, a secondary center, a primary center, and the local exchange, is that
  implemented to serve for telephone services in Thailand.

Chapter 38          Basic Telephone Switching Technology

      A telephone exchange or a switching system is used to connect the telephone signal between two end-users. Basically, there are
  two types, a circuit switch and a packet switch system. Later, telephone exchange has been developed and moved to another
  advanced step to be operated for the next generation network (NGN) system (software switching system). This newer type of
  switching could operate covering basic telecommunication service by using the application of internet protocol (IP) or with
  asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) system. In addition, they are not only to serve for voice service on this soft switching system, but
  also with many type of enhanced based on data communications. That works on digital signal format instead of old fashion of
  analog (voice).
Chapter 39          Basic Telephone Line Testing System

      Line testing system (LTS), as a part of basic telephone fault management system, is used to investigate any fault that occurs and
  interrupts (land line) telephone operation. It is a necessary tool using to yield the quality of service. Generally, LTS is considered into
  two types. Those are internal and external system working in similar manner as an electrical measurement meter. Measured results
  over the cable lines are related to those fault types, therefore, they can be interpreted to figure out for their causes. Thus, solutions to
  fix each fault can be dispatched accordingly. LTS can be also used to preventively maintain the network. Pretest, routine test, or
  surveillance test are the instances of benefit of this system as well.
Chapter 40          Principle of Telex

      Telex or telegraphy exchange was the most common text transmission service in the past before transferring to the newer
  telecommunication systems. It is refered to that the service of providing a documentary record. Also, it was developed as the latter
  generation of the teleprinter which could be used as the unattended machine (semi or automatic) for serving most to press and travel
  agencies, airlines, or embassies in general. Telex was adopted into service in Thailand at the same time as the US’s service
  enhancement of the teleprinter to telex in 1962. At the end of August 1982, there was a record of 3,016 telex customers in Thailand,
  meanwhile about 1.7 million subscribers all around the world were reported in 1988. Until the application of facsimile and other
  higher efficiented communication technologies, the number of telex users had been decreased rapidly worldwide and then its services
  in the United States were terminated in 1992.
Chapter 41         Principle of Facsimile Machine

      Facsimile or fax machines is regarded as telecopy machine and functioned basically as a combination of a copy machine (which
  scans the original textual and graphic material as images as well as printing documents from the receiving information) and a modem
  (which converts the data into signals). It transmits via a telecommunication link, usually telephone lines, to the destination which is a
  receiving fax machine. The reproduced document is a copied version of the original document at the receiver side. Through a long
  history, facsimiles are still in use despite of other replaceable equipment.
Chapter 42         Digital Subscriber Line: DSL

      The classical data communications over the public phone network is usually done via the dial-up modem connections. However, the
  rapidly increasing demand of high data rates and low usage cost leads to the development of technologies which still exploit the existing
  copper-wire infrastructure such as plain old telephone service (POTS). That is a modem-based technology, digital subscriber line (DSL),
  which utilizes much higher bandwidth than those of voice modem. Typically, its data rate is started at about 128 kbps and up to
  1.5 Mbps for most home users over an existed twisted-pair telephone network. In order to utilize higher frequency range of the copper
  lines, specific DSL equipment called Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) must be installed on both ends between user
  and the service provider. Up on the specific purposes, there are various types of DSL those include ADSL, SDSL, HDSL, RADSL, and
  VDSL.
Chapter 43         Power Line Communications

      Power line communications (PLC) has been around for decades since the 1920s. Its applications include automatic meter reading
  (AMR) and automatic protection switching in power grids, as well as remote controls of various home appliances. However, PLC has
  received renewed attention. Due to the explosive growth of Internet usages, availabilities of very large scale integration (VLSI)
  chip sets capable of complex digital signal processing (DSP) functions, and deregulation of telecommunication markets, several power
  utilities plan to provide Internet services through their power distribution networks. Compared to existing applications of PLC, the
  requirements for broadband Internet services, known as Broadband over Power Line (BPL), pose several technical challenges as such
  services have higher bit rates and are offered to multiple users through a shared network. Two technologies have been proposed as
  effective solutions. Firstly, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is used to overcome various non-ideal channel properties
  of power lines, including frequency selective channel response and multi-path propagation. Secondly, carrier sense multiple access
  with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used as a multiple access control (MAC) protocol. Regarding using BPL as an Internet access
  technology, there are concerns about its potential interference with existing wireless communication services including amateur radio,
  shortwave radio, and military applications. In addition, it is not clear whether BPL is more cost effective than its competing technologies
  such as digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modems. The most likely application for broadband PLC is in-home networking, where
  power lines serve as an infrastructure for a communication network among electrical appliances. For such applications, there are
  several industrial standards as well as equipments available in the market.
Chapter 44         Optical or Visual Telegraph

      Before the beginning of telecommunication era, increasing distance for communications was based on that of lifting up the signal
  sources of for the further sight. That was called the “semaphore”. This semaphore was then developed to have a shape similar as like
  the tower or the clock tower. This tower-liked was named as Tachygraphe and the sign on its can be changed accordingly to the
  sending signals. It was invented by a French, “Abbey Claude Chappe”, who became the developer of the latter optical telegraph system.
  This tachygraphe can represent signals with 99 different words at the beginning, through 9,999 words, and up to 40,000 words of late   development. Optical telegraph had been used widespread for more than a century, especially during the revolution in France. It is also
  the origin of “hop” style communication, using in microwave communication system. Officially the first message sent on August 15,
  1794 is the beginning of “Telecommunication Era” and Claude Chappe is also named as the “father of telecommunications”.
Chapter 45         Principle of Optical Communications

      Optical communication is one of the most advanced communications by using electromagnetic waves (of light form). It differs from
  radio and microwave communication in that the wavelengths employed are shorter (or higher frequency). Light as the transmission
  medium, the system employs its beam of modulated monochromatic light to carry information from the transmitter to the receiver.
  As a result, the transmission of speech, data, video, and other information by means of the visible and the infrared portion of the
  electromagnetic spectrum can be deployed. Basically, an optical communication system consists of a transmitter, which encodes a
  message into an optical signal, a channel of either free space or optical fiber, which carries the signal to its destination, and a
  receiver, which reproduces the message from the received optical signal. Obviously, the advantage of communication at high frequency
  of the optical carrier permits much more information to be transmitted over a single channel than it is possible with a conventional
  radio or microwave system. In addition, the very short wavelength of the optical carrier permits the realization of very small compact
  components.
Chapter 46         Fiber optic Communication System

      Fiber optic communication system is a kind of lightwave communications that utilize the optical fiber as a waveguide. Generally, its
  basic structure composes of electro-optic (E/O) converter, optical fiber, and optic-electronic (O/E) converter. The fiber structure
  consists of “core” and “cladding” which their index profile and propagation mode represent to their types. Its related applications are for
  medical and sensor purpose, sensor, and for high speed communication as well.
Chapter 47         Fiber To The Home: FTTH

      Fiber to the Home (FTTH) is an optical signal communication that utilizes an optical fiber to connect from the central network to the
  subscribers or end users in order to achieve a high-speed access. This system provides a high bandwidth communication channel and
  supports multiple communication services, those are high-speed internet, Cable TV, and broadband communication. It could be
  provided simultaneously for each user via only a single or a pair of fiber optic cable.
Chapter 48         Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

      Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) refers to a technology for a fiber-optic transmission that exploits multiple
  wavelengths of light within the 1550-nm band on a single fiber. In contrast to the communication over copper wires which deploys
  another technology called time division multiplex (TDM), it employs multiple optical carrier signals with different wavelengths of laser
  light whose spacing is less or denser than that of conventional wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), to carry different data for each
  channel on a single. This technology is regarded as a crucial component of optical networks that allows the transmission of various
  types of data communicated with protocols or systems such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and synchronous optical
  network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) over an optical layer.
Chapter 49         Fundamental of Radio Antenna

      The antenna is a transducer designed to transmit and to receive electromagnetic wave. In the same hand, transmitted antenna
  converts electrical impulse to be electromagnetic wave and vice versa for the received antenna. According to various kind of wireless
  communication systems, antennas are designed appropriately with their applications and frequency band. They are for such as radio
  and television broadcasting, wireless LAN, radar, space exploration, and etc.
Chapter 50         Smart Antenna

      Smart antennas have been used for improving the performance of wireless radio systems. They consist of an antenna array,
  combined with signal processing in both space and time domain. The objective is to enhance the received signal, to suppress all
  interfering signal, and to increase capacity. This chapter provides basic information about smart antenna system including its types
  and applications.
Chapter 51         Bluetooth and ZigBee

      Short range communication is the communication technology that utilizes wireless communications or radio wave communications. It
  is intended for communications between small electronic or electrical devices such as mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA),
  Pocket Personal Computer (Pocket PC), digital music player, and other small electronic devices. The devices that are in a personal area,
  which radius of coverage area should be less than 50 meters, can form a network and communication with each other. The important
  objective of the short range communication technology is that it should be commodity and can be embedded in any small electronic and
  electrical devices. There short range communication technologies are Bluetooth and ZigBee.
Chapter 52         Bluetooth Technology

      Bluetooth is a kind of wireless personal area network (WPAN) technology that operates in 2.4 – 2.483 GHz frequency band. This
  communication will forms temporary small network called piconet with data transmission rate is up to 1 Mbps (max). Bluetooth is
  available for small and low power devices such as personal digital assistant (PDA), laptop, and portable devices. There are three
  basic technologies inside bluetooth system that includes frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), service discovery protocol (SDP),
  and application protocols. Its application are for all types of communication, those are picture, voice, and data.
Chapter 53         Radio Frequency Identifi cation: RFID

      RFID technology allows for remote wireless information storage and access by modulating information signal on to electromagnetic
  wave carriers. In an RFID communication system, the information is normally exchanged between RFID interrogators/readers and RFID
  tags. The information typically stored in an RFID tag is for the purpose of identification. Generally, RFID applications of interest include
  book identification in a library system, animal identification in livestock management, access control for office security, and payment
  media in transportation systems.
Chapter 54         Principle of WiFi Networks

      WiFi is an attractive networking solution due to the ability of computing and communication devices (e.g., PDA, PC, notebooks)   
  equipped with appropriate WiFi Network Interface Cards (NICs) to communicate with each other without encumbering the users with
  cabling and its limitations. WiFi changes the way people work. It allows people to stay connected or share data anywhere, anytime
  under the service areas. Wireless deployments have increased dramatically due to the maturity of the WLAN technologies and their
  reduction in cost. WiFi is not intended to replace wired networks, but rather complement them, for enhancing efficiency and
  productivity.
Chapter 55         Amateur Radio

      Amateur radio is a scientific hobby, carried on by duly authorized persons with three license classes, the novice, the intermediate,
  and the advanced. The radio communication shall be done in accordance with the rules and regulation set out by the administrative
  authority, such as call sign, communication channels, Q-codes, and transmission powers. The operations shall comply with
  the international standards in order to achieve an efficient communication with worldwide radio amateurs.
Chapter 56         Principle of Wireless Sensor Networks

      The military needs for monitoring battle fields have pushed for the introduction of wireless sensor technology. It then has been
  further developed for civilian and commercial applications. Some important factors that demand the use of wireless sensor technology
  over wireline sensor technology include : (1) the deployment cannot or hardly be realized with cable lines; (2) the requirement to
  monitor or surveillance large areas; and (3) the need for monitoring not only temporal but various spatial data such as temperature,
  humidity, and water supply. Wireless sensor network consists of a group of sensor nodes joined together into network. These sensor
  nodes are located where signal are collected. The signal is relayed and finally collected by the server node to be further analyzed.
  Several applications include agriculture environment control, vehicular traffic monitoring and control, air and voice pollution control,
  and public safety control.

Chapter 57         Ultra-wideband for Wireless Communications

      Ultra-wideband signal is a technology with high potential for high-speed multimedia wireless communications. It takes different
  approach in electromagnetic communications compared to fundamental of narrowband wireless communications. Moreover, ultra-
  wideband requires no carrier signal in order to communicate. Ultra-wideband technology offers several advantages such as
  resistance to jamming, large channel capacity, and simple transceiver architecture compare with fundamental of narrowband
  communication technology. As a result, this kind of is deployed to access a wide range of information for higher capacity and support
  many users of wireless communications.
Chapter 58         470 MHz. Cellular Mobile Telephone System

      The first generation of mobile telephone system in Thailand is that the 470 MHz cellular system. Basically, it is that the Nordic mobile
  telephone (NMT-450 MHz). After the operating first for Scandinavian countries in 1981 by using 450 MHz band, it was then adopted to
  Thailand in 1986 by moving technically to available frequency 470 MHz band. This analog mobile telephone system was popular at the
  beginning, however, its service fades down after the present of newer digital based mobile telephone system.

Chapter 59         Water Surface Communications

      Communications over surface of the water is a kind of wireless communications, which is important as much as communications
  over the ground. Due to the major part of the world covers by water, this communication system plays an important role for the long
  distance connection. The water surface communication are separated into five categories. Those are done on transmission through
  ground wave, satellite link, scattering to the troposphere, and reflecting from Ionosphere.

Chapter 60         Submarine Cable Network in Thailand

      Alternative high capacity communication channel called submarine cable, is that the development of wired communications by laying
  it underwater. Basically, it is used to deliver high speed or high capacity data of long distance communications purpose. Copper and
  coaxial cable are those original types of cable which used for the submarine cable network. Later in digital communication
  era, optical fiber is replaced which more advantage than that of the previous metal cables. For Thailand, there are lots of submarine
  cable projects. The initial one was done by the former Communication Authority of Thailand (CAT) in 1964. It was a joint project with
  Japanese agency to link for Thailand-the Philippine-and Japan. Continuously, newer projects such as ASEAN Cable System, Thai-
  Malaysia Link, SEW-ME-WE3, and FLAG were implemented.
Chapter 61         Television Broadcasting

      Television Broadcasting is a type of picture and voice transmission. There are two categories of TV broadcasting which are on
  analog and digital technology. The principle of TV broadcasting is that the transmitter will send the picture and voice signal that got
  modulated with the radio wave and then spread in the air in the form of the electromagnetic wave. The receiver then demodulates the
  signal for the picture and voice to appear on the monitor. The principle of the TV broadcasting composes of scanning and systems of
  television signaling such as NTSC system, PAL system, and SECAM system, etc. For these types of TV broadcasting, there are many
  transmission methods such as sending through the cable transmission line, satellite, and ground radio frequency wave.
Chapter 62         Broadcasting Television 3

      Thai TV Color Channel 3 started broadcasting at 1970 on VHF Low Band PAL-B system, to serve the Bangkok and surrounding area.
  In 1987, Thai TV Color Channel 3 networks were setup together with the Mass Communication Organization of Thailand (MCOT) TV
  networks. The coverage area extended to 89.7 % of the whole country or covered over 96.3 % for the total population in Thailand.
  After that, in 2005, the Bangkok master station and all VHF Low Band PALB system of Channel 3 TV stations were changed to the UHF
  frequency band PAL-G system. Resulting to good receiving signal, higher picture quality is achieved. Thai TV Color Channel 3 involves in
  digital broadcasting system. Those are done by setting up related transmitters that support the Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting DVB-T
  into both of Bangkok master station and at other bases nationwide.
Chapter 63         Teletext

      Generally, teletext is a newspaper sent over a television network system. It was developed in the United Kingdom in 1970 before the
  invention of internet. The teletext data, such as stock exchange data, weather forecast data, and international news, is sent by
  modulating its signal into the television signal. This modulated signal is then sent to the receiver over a television broadcasting.
  Finally, the end user can view a newspaper by using the teletext decoding machine such as SETTOP BOX. This kind of service fades
  down after the present of the internet network and short message service (SMS) via mobile phone, and etc.
Chapter 64         Broadband Communications

      Broadband communications are referred to a group of technologies in both telecommunications and data communications that can
  provide high-speed digital data transfer and can support multiple services such as voice, still picture, motion picture or video, and text
  data or multimedia at the same time on the same network. Broadband communications are relative term used to differentiate
  a group of systems from narrowband communications. In broadband communications, the systems normally use wider spectrum or
  larger bandwidth and transfer faster digital data rate than traditional narrowband communications. They can be used to deliver   
  different types of services over single network. Generally, both wired and wireless broadband technologies are identified and
  categorized. Their applications and basic characteristics are described.
Chapter 65          Broadband over Power Lines

      In the early stages of Power Line Communications (PLC) technology, it was applied by power utilities for controlling and ensuring
  efficient energy distribution system. Its application also includes automatic controls of various home appliances. Due to the dramatic
  increasing of high-speed internet usages demand, and the dense power supply infrastructures in most area, Broadband over
  Power Lines (BPL) technology has received high attention for providing high-speed internet service. The physical components of BPL
  consist of high-voltage level, medium-voltage level, and lowvoltage level transmission lines interconnected with transformers.
  Consequently, the common topologies of distribution grid (bus, star, and ring topologies) play an important roll in the PLC
  network design when considering network cost, network reliability, and network efficiency. There are several network architectures
  for providing BPL, for instance, fiber-optic and low voltage lines network architecture, medium and low voltage lines network
  architecture, and medium voltage lines and wireless network architecture, which are suitable for the different situations. Nevertheless,
  BPL technology poses an important technical limitation about its interference with amateur radio system, military communication system
  and aviation control radio. The rules and standards have been set
Chapter 66         Wireless Sensor Network

      From the development of technology in sensor, microprocessor, and wireless communications fields lead to a new method of data
  gathering which is small in size with low power consumption and low cost. By distribution of many small size sensor nodes embeds into
  the intended environment for gathering information, each sensor node is one unit of a network. All nodes collaborates each other to
  create a wireless sensor network for communication and sending information. Each sensor node and the whole wireless sensor
  network have ability of self-organize, so they can operate unintentionally from operator or human. Because of many limitations, the
  form of wireless sensor network is changed and adapted to accomplish its goal in the real world.

Chapter 67          Integrated Services Digital Network: ISDN

      The communication system had been changed from sending and receiving the sound or analog signal to be the digital signal,
  because of the limited of the information flow rate in the communication line. Consequently, the method using digital signal is called
  Integrated Services Digital Network or ISDN, was introduced which combined both sending and receiving data (including pictures and
  sound). Next, the broadband ISDN has been developed with higher sending and receiving data rate in order to get more effective
  system. ISDN is not only used in telephone system, but it also applied to other information system such as for security system or
  multimedia purpose.
Chapter 68          Virtual Private Network: VPN

      Virtual private network (VPN) is a kind of technology that allows users to access remotely through internet to the local or company
  network as if it is working in the same place. For instance, users who stay far beyond the service area may need to use those functions
  or resources of the office network. This is possible by using VPN technologies. Basically, the internet is a public network which can be
  intercepted by unwanted users. For this reason, VPN provides the key mechanisms to create secure connection by using tunneling,
  encryption, and authentication. There are many VPN applications such as remote access VPN, Intranet VPN and Extranet VPN. All of
  these applications could be supported by point-to-point tunneling protocol (PPTP), layer 2 tunneling protocol (L2TP), and IP security
  (IPsec).
Chapter 69          Thailand School Net

      Thailand school communication network or “School Net” was found in 1995 by the National Electronic and Computer Technology
  Center (NECTEC). Its objectives are to support self education of Thai students by using the information technology or IT, and also to
  establish another communication channel among teachers and students in order to improving education atmosphere. This project has
  been developed follow the eighth national economic and social development plans (1997 – 2001). In addition, it is responsible to the
  national information technology policy of the year 2000 (IT 2000). SchoolNet’s evolution has been seen in its four periods of time.
  Those are the beginning years, the time of schoolnet@1509, the project expanding period, and the transition time from NECTEC to the
  ministry of education.
Chapter 70          เทคโนโลยีการสื่อสารสำหรับระบบควบคุมการจำหน่ายไฟฟ้า

      Basically, distribution automation system (DAS) for electricity services consists of three major subsystems. Those are controlling
  system of the master station, communication system via any purposed channel such as mobile communications/ trunked radio/
  microwave communication/ copper wire & phone lines/ powerline communications or fiber optic communication, and the remote
  terminal unite (RTU) for remote measurement and operations. This DAS is used in order to improve power distribution efficiency and
  stability, to reduce the SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index), and to provide the efficient maintenance & safety with less
  human operation and on-site cost. These are done by the operation of master station to communicate with RTU in order to switch
  on/off and to do other functions via specific or selected communication systems.
Chapter 71         Basic Communication Systems for Power Grid Network

      Grid systems is an important part for transmitting electric energy from power plants to customers. In practical, power plants may
  located away from customers in range of several hundred kilometers. For this reason, grid system controls are a necessary function for
  power system management (i.e., optimal power flow, transmission and distribution operation, system stability, etc.). Furthermore,
  operations of a component in a grid system may cause various consequences to other parts. Hence, for efficiently managing grid
  systems, an appropriate and reliable communication channel for system operators must be installed. Those details are an overview of
  components in power systems and their remote control systems, structure of supervisory control and management system (SCADA),
  related standards, and the history of electric industry.
Chapter 72         Traffic Information Through FM Radio Broadcasting

      Transmission of traffic information through FM radio broadcasting is one of data transmission channels for the Intelligent Transport
  System (ITS). Its coverage is for wide area utilization meanwhile its investment cost is considered. Significantly, traffic information is
  utilized in order to making a decision in type and travel route with the most updated traffic status. Traffic information is mixed with FM
  broadcasting signal in order to the utilization this existing communication channel as the benefit. Generally, broadcasting system of
  traffic information, related communication standards, and its procedures, are the important factors of this communication system.
Chapter 73         Principle of Communication System for Water Resource Management

      Communication systems play an important role in order to manage water resource of various watersheds over Thailand and nearby.
  Related data among those meteorological and hydrology agencies need to be transferred and managed efficiently. Consequently, that
  would impact directly to other concerns in order to supply adequate water for agriculture and industries, and also to prevent the
  disaster of flood and others. Basically, the development of those communication systems has been moved from the manual mode of
  using basic telephone and radio communication through the telemetering system. Moreover, meteorological radar and satellite
  communication are applied in to this kind of resource management as well. Significantly, they could support real time scenario of
  concerned information. In addition, communications via mobile telephone (GPRS) channel is another effective channel where real time
  multimedia (data, voice, and picture) could be reported from on-site directly and individually.
Chapter 74         Telemetering System for Irrigation

      In Thailand, the telemetering system is widely used in automatic remote data measurement. Transmission of irrigation information
  such as water level and quantity including its salinity and oxygen, rainfall quantity and water gate control, are those necessary datum.
  As a result, it tremendously enhances water management efficiency. First, after data collection the results are transmitted to the
  master station in both images and numeric forms. These transmission channels include radio wave, fiber optics, and public phone
  network (for leased line). Next, the data is processed through a forecast system in order to support decision making at the final. The
  Royal Irrigation Department leverages the water level and rainfall quantity identified by the telemetering and a water forecast systems
  in water management at various river basins. For instance of telemetering utilitation, water level at a remote station can be captured
  by the telemetering system. The captured images of water quantity are transmitted to the master station, while the textual data is sent
  to recipients via short-messaging services over mobile devices.
Chapter 75         Communication Systems for Tsunami Warning

      Dart Buoy or Tsunami warning system was installed at various sites in the oceans around the world. Basically, changes in sea-water
  level will be measured by sea-water pressure gauge which installed at the ocean floor and then transmitted to the Tsunami Warning
  Center via satellite within few seconds after the earthquake. Next, the center will bring the sea level data and others in order to
  evaluate. Finally, in case of the event warning information would be then distributed via SMS, FAX, OPENCARE, call center, warning
  tower, and television broadcasting.
Chapter 76         Global Maritime Distress and Safety System: GMDSS

      In order to prevent marine disaster, communication systems play a very important note to save human life / ship / properties during
  its journey in the sea. After the disaster of the Titanic in 1939, the SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) was then established (1941) to
  cooperative on these safety. Consequently, the international Maritime Organization (IMO) was formed to responsible for organizing and
  releasing safety rules for the marine safety. Later in 1988, with the assistant of the international Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) /
  world Meteorological Organization (WMO) / international Hydrographic Organization (IHO) / INMARSAT and others, the GMMDS (Global
  Maritime Distress and Safety System) was then formed. Starting on February 1st of 1992, GMDSS was adopted and completed in seven
  years late with the compulsory to all about 300 Gross tonship (with assumption to war ship and some specialties ships)
Chapter 77         Warning Tower and Its Communication Systems

      Warning tower is used in Thailand as one of the important tools in disaster risk areas to disseminate information and notify people
  to escape from the disaster which might occur in the area such as tsunami, flash flood, land-slide, and etc. The towers, excluding those
  installed by Krabi province, are controlled by the National Disaster Warning Center (NDWC) (2008). Information about the disaster
  which may generate into the area, will be distributed by NDWC. Generally, the warning towers could work automatically after receiving
  transmitted data via satellite, and also through the local community via radio frequency (FR) communication. It would be functioned
  even in an emergency situation which causes destruction in a rest area and subject of the failure of power generation system or
  ground communication systems.
Chapter 78         Telecommunication Network for the Greater Phuket Digital Paradise Project

      Phuket is the biggest island in Thailand, there is about 544 square kilometers of the area located on the Andaman coast of the west
  of the south of Thailand. The highest elevation of the island is 422 meter above sea level. Though the tin mining business has played
  a
specially role in the economic development of the province, but in early 1985 the price of the tin fell by half and tin mining became
  unprofitable to continue the operation. The tin mining business gradually ceases operation. The decline has also due to the decrease
  in
deposit after centuries of exploitation. Therefore, Phuket has to look for new business on which to base its future economic
  development. Fortunately, its natural beauty was soon discovered and there was explosion of tourism industry in 1980’s which has
  lasted until the 21st century. The tourism industry has bought in more than 50,000 million baht at early 2000s. The population of the
  province is around 287,000 in 2004, but there are more than three million tourists destining to Phuket a year. The government has
  emphasized the development of Phuket and surrounding areas to attract more foreign visitors. For the development of Knowledge
  Based Economy, Thai Government has set up and Action Plan (1999 – 2011) to develop Phuket as the international city by making use
  of ICT. The government strategy for ICT development is called the Greater Phuket Digital Paradise Project. It aims to facilitating the
  Greater Phuket area, which includes Phuket and its four neighboring provinces of Krabi, Phangnga, Trang and Satun, which share the
  coastline along the Andaman Sea.The National Electronics and Computer Technology Center under the National Science and
  Technology Development Agency has the responsibility to implement the strategy in cooperation with the Office of the National
  Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), Phuket Provincial Governor’s Office and the other related sectors. The objective of
  Greater Phuket Digital Paradise Project is to enforce international competitiveness in business and industry.
Chapter 79         Thai Military Communications System

      Thai military communications system is generally applied both at to state of normality and state of war. It is used for
  communications between battalion and other institution implicated of transnational security. Basically, it composes of three systems.
  There are military communication system, tactical communication system, and support functions system. Each of them is configured
  specifically and would work synchronizingly for those supposes.
Chapter 80         Principle of Satellite Communications

      From the origination idea of a synchronous communications satellite in 1984 of Arthur C. Clarke, a British writer and author of “2001:
  A Space Odyssey”, it was later developed to be the satellite communication system. Communications via satellite play a major role in
  broadcasting, computer and internet communications, and many others. Starting from launching of SPUTNIK I on October 4, 1957
  through the first commercial satellite of INTELSAT on April 6, 1965, satellite communication has been developing significantly combining
  together with many kinds of technologies. Basically, satellite communications engineering covers such a lot of topics as radio wave
  propagation, antenna technologies, orbital mechanics, communication techniques (such as signal processing, modulation and coding),
  and related electronics. Importantly, aspects of satellite communication design are complicated where those parameters are, for
  instance, lightweight and minimum power consumption, considered large number of communication channels requirement, enormous
  path loss of long number of communication, powerful transceivers, or even the compliant with each government licensing and
  regulatory requirement (e.g. geosynchronous orbit).
Chapter 81         History and Development of Satellite Communication Systems

      From the 1945 article describing of the possible use of communication relay implemented in the space, satellite communication was
  then developed from this origin of Author C. Clarke’s idea. Since the beginning of launching the world first satellite, SPUTNIK of USSR
  in 1957 and following by the first US’s satellite, Explorer I, in 1958, satellite communication has been developing continuously and
  playing a very important role in world-wide telecommunications. In Thailand, this kind of wide coverage area communications was
  started with the Intelsat in 1967 for the basic international telephone services. Later in 1993, the first Thai communication satellite,
  ThaiCom, was launched. Following with Thai Micro-SATellite (TMSAT), it has been operating since 1997. Under the cooperation of
  Thai-French government, Thailand Earth Observation Satellite (THEOS) project was then established in 2004.
Chapter 82         THEOS Satellite

      THEOS satellite is the first optical remote sensing satellite for Thailand which is fully operated by the Geo-Informatics and Space
  Technology Development Agency (GISTDA), Ministry of Science and Technology. It was developed on LEOSTAR 500 XO platform
  where concerned technologies have been used in former French observation programs. Those are SPOT (Le Systeme Probatoire d’
  Observation de la Terre 5: SPOT5) and PLEIADES. Technically, its communication system bases on both frequency range of S-band
  (2-4 GHz) and X-band (8-12 GHz). With the assigned function, that s-band frequency is used for ground communication purpose.
  Meanwhile for payload data management, X-band frequency channel is selected.
Chapter 83         Thai Mrico-SATellite: TMSAT

      Thaipat is a Thailand’s first microsatellite designed and built by Thai engineers. The technology transfer and training was a one
  year program under the corporation between university of Surrey (UK), Mahanakorn university of Technology (MUT) and united
  communication company limited (UCOM). The objective was to transfer the knowledge and expertise of the designing, testing, and
  building a small satellite. The program was commenced in April 1996, and completed in April 1997. The original title of program and
  spacecraft was the TMSAT (Thai Micro-SATellite). Thaipat was a name given by His Majesty The King Bhumibol Adulyadej, in October
  1998. The main payload on boarded Thaipat was a multi-spectral Earth observation cameras with 65 metre resolution. The other
  payloads were digital store-forward communications payload (DSP payload and GPS receiver). On 10 July 1998, Thaipat was launched
  by the Zenith-II launcher into Sun synchronous orbit at 815 km altitude and 98 degree inclination.

Chapter 84         THailand Earth Observation Satellite: THEOS

      Having utilized satellite data in various applications for more than two decades and realizing the importance of earth observation,
  Thailand has decided to develop its own satellite. Through the Cooperation Agreement between the Governments of Thailand and
  French Republic, the THEOS (Thailand Earth Observation System) Programme has been established. The French company, EADS
  Astrium, which has extensive experience in this field such as SPOT series of satellites was chosen as the prime contractor. The contract
  includes development and launch of THEOS satellite, as well as the development of the ground segment both for satellite operation and
  control. THEOS satellite is the first high-resolution earth observation satellite for Thailand which is fully operated by the Geo-Informatics
  and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA), Ministry of Science and Technology and will provide worldwide geo-referenced
  image products and image reception and processing capabilities for applications in cartography, land use, natural disaster assessment
  and mitigation, environmental monitoring, agriculture and forest management, coastal zone monitoring and flood risk management.
  THEOS will provide timely imaging of any part of Thailand in less than three days. The THEOS satellite payload features both high
  resolution in panchromatic mode and wide field of view in multispectral mode which has been tailored to Thailand’s specific needs with
  a worldwide imaging capability. The launch of THEOS is scheduled in 2008 in a sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of about 822
  kilometers.
Chapter 85         Global Positioning System for Surveying and Mapping

      In aspect of navigation purpose, GPS or Global Positioning System becomes commonplace and user-friendly for all. The principle of
  GPS for positioning is like compass back-azimuth techniques but instead compass direction sighting to two or three key terrains, from
  the space, 2 of 24 satellites emit signals to a receiver for positioning and other implements accuracy of receiver position. Generally,
  there are two types of receivers: navigation and surveying purposes. Two techniques of measurement are conducted: kinematics and
  static techniques. In Thailand GPS and another Satellite Positioning Systems, however, for surveying and mapping have been operated
  since 1960. The Royal Thai Survey Department is the initiators of GPS operation for such purpose as construction and extension of
  national mapping ground control-point network by using static measurement techniques. This activity has been operated annually. For
  the kinematics measurement techniques, the department of city planning and public work installed the GPS-based station for correction
  signals broadcasting purpose throughout Thailand. Finally, GPS is integrated with IT technology and becomes a necessary part of daily
  life activities.
Chapter 86         Marine Environmental Monitoring System Using Buoy Network and Satellite Technology

      An important system of marine environmental monitoring for various purposes can be utilized of buoy networks. As of year 2007,
  there are eleven buoy locations Thailand, where nine are in the gulf of Thailand and two locate in the Andaman Sea. Desired data form
  this buoy network is measured and collected, then transmitted via satellite link through ground station. Those include sea surface
  temperature, salinity, conductivity, significance wave height & period, current speed & direction, light attenuation at 470, 550 and
  650 nm, wind speed & direction, air temperature and air pressure. Generally, this system is operated twenty four repeats a day and
  functioned as a nearly real time system.





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